1 the financial means whereby one lives; "each child was expected to pay for their keep"; "he applied to the state for support"; "he could no longer earn his own livelihood" [syn: support, livelihood, living, bread and butter, sustenance]
3 a cell in a jail or prison [syn: hold]
1 keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g., "keep clean"; "hold in place"; "She always held herself as a lady"; "The students keep me on my toes" [syn: maintain, hold]
2 continue a certain state, condition, or activity; "Keep on working!"; "We continued to work into the night"; "Keep smiling"; "We went on working until well past midnight" [syn: continue, go on, proceed, go along] [ant: discontinue]
3 retain possession of; "Can I keep my old stuffed animals?"; "She kept her maiden name after she married" [syn: hold on] [ant: lose]
4 prevent from doing something or being in a certain state; "We must prevent the cancer from spreading"; "His snoring kept me from falling asleep"; "Keep the child from eating the marbles" [syn: prevent] [ant: let]
5 conform one's action or practice to; "keep appointments"; "she never keeps her promises"; "We kept to the original conditions of the contract" [syn: observe]
6 observe correctly or closely; "The pianist kept time with the metronome"; "keep count"; "I cannot keep track of all my employees" [syn: observe, maintain]
7 look after; be the keeper of; have charge of; "He keeps the shop when I am gone"
8 maintain by writing regular records; "keep a diary"; "maintain a record"; "keep notes" [syn: maintain]
9 supply with room and board; "He is keeping three women in the guest cottage"; "keep boarders"
10 allow to remain in a place or position; "We cannot continue several servants any longer"; "She retains a lawyer"; "The family's fortune waned and they could not keep their household staff"; "Our grant has run out and we cannot keep you on"; "We kept the work going as long as we could" [syn: retain, continue, keep on, keep going]
11 supply with necessities and support; "She alone sustained her family"; "The money will sustain our good cause"; "There's little to earn and many to keep" [syn: sustain, maintain]
12 fail to spoil or rot; "These potatoes keep for a long time" [syn: stay fresh]
13 celebrate, as of holidays or rites; "Keep the commandments"; "celebrate Christmas"; "Observe Yom Kippur" [syn: observe, celebrate]
14 keep under control; keep in check; "suppress a smile"; "Keep your temper"; "keep your cool" [syn: restrain, suppress, keep back, hold back]
15 maintain in safety from injury, harm, or danger; "May God keep you" [syn: preserve]
16 raise; "She keeps a few chickens in the yard"; "he keeps bees"
17 retain rights to; "keep my job for me while I give birth"; "keep my seat, please"; "keep open the possibility of a merger" [syn: keep open, hold open, save]
18 store or keep customarily; "Where do you keep your gardening tools?"
19 have as a supply; "I always keep batteries in the freezer"; "keep food for a week in the pantry"; "She keeps a sixpack and a week's worth of supplies in the refrigerator"
20 maintain for use and service; "I keep a car in the countryside"; "She keeps an apartment in Paris for her shopping trips" [syn: maintain]
21 hold and prevent from leaving; "The student was kept after school"
22 prevent (food) from rotting; "preserved meats"; "keep potatoes fresh" [syn: preserve] [also: kept]
- To maintain
- I keep a small stock of painkillers for emergencies.
- To maintain the
- I keep my specimens under glass to protect them.
- transitive archaic
To remain in, to be
- 1605, William
Shakespeare, King Lear, III.ii,
- The wrathful skies
- Gallow the very wanderers of the dark
- And make them keep their caves.
- Gallow the very wanderers of the dark
- The wrathful skies
- 1605, William Shakespeare, King Lear, III.ii,
- To restrain.
- I keep my brother out of trouble by keeping him away from his friends and hard at work.
- To continue.
- I keep taking the tablets, but to no avail.
- In the context of "intransitive|cricket": To act as wicket-keeper.
- Godfrey Evans kept for England for many years.
- transitive of livestock
to raise; to care for
- 1914, Robert Joos, Success with Hens, Forbes & company,
- Of course boys are boys and need watching, but there is little watching necessary when they keep chickens.''
- 1914, Robert Joos, Success with Hens, Forbes & company, page 217:
Derived termslookfrom keep
- keep around
- keep at
- keep away
- keep back
- keep down
- keep faith
- keep fit
- keep from
- keep going
- keep in mind
- keep in touch
- keep it down
- keep it on the barber pole
- keep it real
- keep it up
- keep mum
- keep off
- keep on
- keep on truckin'
- keep one's cards close to one's chest
- keep one's eye on the ball
- keep one's eyes peeled
- keep one's head
- keep one's lips sealed
- keep one on one's toes
- keep oneself to oneself
- keep out
- keep out of
- keep quiet
- keep shtum
- keep somebody in stitches
- keep somebody posted
- keep someone in the loop
- keep straight
- keep tabs on
- keep the wolf from the door
- keep track
- keep up
- keep up with
- keep wicket
- keep with
- keep your pecker up
- keep your hair on
- keep your shirt on
to maintain possession of
- Chinese: 保持 (bǎochí)
- Finnish: pitää
- French: garder
- German: behalten
- Russian: хранить
- Spanish: guardar
- Swedish: hålla, behålla
- West Frisian: hâlde
to maintain the condition of; to preserve
- Finnish: pitää], [[säilyttää]
- German: bewahren
- Russian: хранить
- Spanish: guardar
- Swedish: bevara
to remain in, to be confined to
- Finnish: pysyä
- Spanish: permanecer
to act as wicket-keeper
of livestock: to raise; to care for
- Spanish: criar
- ttbc Dutch: houden
- ttbc Estonian: hoidma (1), säilitama (2)
- ttbc Ido: retenar
- ttbc Indonesian: jaga, menjaga, menjagai
- ttbc Italian: tenere, stare
- ttbc Japanese: 保つ (たもつ, tamotsu), 確保する (かくほする, kakuho-suru)
- ttbc Persian: (negâh dâštan)
- ttbc Portuguese: manter
- ttbc Romanian: ţine
- ttbc Slovene: obdržati (1), vzdrževati (2)
- ttbc Telugu: ఉంచు (uMchu), పెట్టు (peTTu)
- Finnish: elanto
- German: Lebensunterhalt
- take keep — “take note”
- Chaucer, G.P. 503-4:
- And shame it is, if a preest take keep
- A shiten shepherde and a clene sheep
- And shame it is, if a preest take keep
As nobles became more interested in grand halls and comfortable living quarters, the keep lost its domestic role. Although keeps continued to be used and built, there is evidence that many had a reduced role, demonstrated by the lack of residential amenities in the tower plans, such as latrines and chimneys.
In Western Europe, however, the defensible residential keep experienced a resurgence before the end of the medieval period, as towers were built to house nobles and their retinues securely, but at a very high level of comfort and luxury (e.g. Raglan Castle, Ashby de la Zouch Castle, Chateau de Vincennes, and Château de Largoët). This luxurious type was particularly popular in late medieval Scotland up until the 1600s (e.g. Craigievar Castle). Another word for this type of keep is the tower house.
Norman or Romanesque keepAn archetypical form for the keep in the British Isles is the Norman keep, so-called because they were built throughout England and Ireland by Norman nobles. Norman keeps usually have several distinguishing features in common and the type was very popular during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Most have towers at each corner, which usually extend above the main keep to form watchtowers. In many cases spiral staircases were contained in or near these corner towers. Another common feature was the forebuilding, which contained the entryway to the keep, its most vulnerable point. This structure extended from the side of the keep and often, was approached by stairs, as the entryway usually was above ground level. Sometimes a drawbridge guarded the top of the stairs. One of the most famous keeps in Europe is the White Tower of The Tower of London, constructed by William the Conqueror in the aftermath of the Norman Conquest.
The cylindrical donjon of Rouen, shown above, is all that remains of the large city fortress where Joan of Arc was imprisoned during her trial for heresy.
Shown to the right is the tallest keep remaining in existence, the donjon of Château de Vincennes, which is located in a suburb of contemporary Paris. Previously this distinction was held the donjon of Coucy in Picardy.
keep in Belarusian: Данжон
keep in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Данжон
keep in Bulgarian: Донжон
keep in Catalan: Donjon
keep in Czech: Donjon
keep in Danish: Donjon
keep in German: Donjon
keep in Spanish: Torre del homenaje
keep in French: Donjon
keep in Italian: Maschio (architettura)
keep in Hebrew: מגדל עוז (ביצור)
keep in Lithuanian: Donžonas
keep in Hungarian: Öregtorony
keep in Dutch: Donjon
keep in Japanese: ダンジョン
keep in Polish: Stołp
keep in Portuguese: Torre de menagem
keep in Russian: Донжон
keep in Swedish: Kärntorn
keep in Ukrainian: Донжон
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